耶鲁大学开放课程—哲学:死亡(学习笔记与个人评价第二课)

分类:梦回人生千百度 | 作者:观尔腾 | 发表于2010/07/24

课程类型:心理学(资料整理ing)

关于课程的介绍这里就不讲了,可以点击到这里看看。

在线观看:

第二课:The nature of persons: dualism vs. physicalism(人的本质: 二元论与物理主义 )

第一;在这节课上Shelly Kagan教授带头讨论了的问题有:

1.What kind of a thing is person?(怎么定义“人”?)

2.What’s the nature of persistence of identity over time?(人格身份的持续存在的本质是什么?)

3.Might I surive my death?( 我能死里逃生吗?哲学意义上的。)

4.What’s meaning of people death?(人死了是什么意思?)

第二;Shelly Kagan教授如何推动并证明他的观点

1.提出并针对一些质疑以上提出的关于死亡的问题的价值的观点进行反驳

如果我们首先对死亡下个定义的话,那么这里的死亡指的是肉体的停止运作;

这样的话例如以上的问题就可以转化为:“作为人,能否在肉体死亡后继续存在?”

Would I survive the death of my body?

个人观点:人死了就意味着不活么?或者像这样的问题:你离开深圳后还会在深圳做些什么?这里看上去问题是矛盾的,但假如你对其中的关键词下个定义,那么就不会矛盾了。死了就不能幸存?那么这里死亡是否就是指“人”的完全消失?或者从另一方面?SURVIVE是指肉体的继续存在还是包括了其他东西?

2.针对以上问题,这里则必须对“人”是什么下一个定义

这里Shelly Kagan教授提出了四个观点:

Dualist(二元论);Monist(一元论);Physicalist(唯物主义);Idealism(唯心主义);最后这个我还找不词来表达,类似于多元论

Dualist(二元论)

这个观点在心理学导论第二课有讲到,笛卡尔的二元论,也是最为广泛的价值观之一

Dualist position points out that a person is made of two totally different things, soul and body.

But it doesn’t object to some tight connections between the two above.

Monist(一元论)

Monism is any philosophical view which holds that there is unity in a given field of inquiry, where this is not to be expected.

Physicalist(唯物主义)

Monist position supports that people are only made of material, including their characteriscs, thoughts and so on. It seems everything belong to physical.

Idealism(唯心主义)

Idealism position is opposite to monist, totally everything aroud us are just because of my mind.

The last one (God knows)

This view points out that mind and body are just two different ways of looking at the same underlying reality where the underlying reality is neither physical nor mental.

3.In term of Dualist, we could come to following conclusion.

If there’s a soul as well as the body and the soul is something immaterial then when the body dies,   could continue to exist.

The followings are some reasons.

Considered death might be the severing of that connection between soul and body, if I would survive death of my body, that means even the person’s body has destroyed, the soul could continue to exist because his or her soul have a very tight connection.

第三;以下是今后将会继续讨论的问题(The following questions will be continue being discussed.)

1.Are souls and bodies distinct?

2.Does the soul, survive the destruction of the body?

3.If soul survive, how long does it survive? Does it continue to exist forever?

Click here to read the plato’s phaedo.

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  1. 91526 說:

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  4. 您好 說:

    很惊讶看到你的网站,也更惊讶看到耶鲁大学开设死亡课程,很感动。那位教授的课很生动有趣。谢谢您。有个请求,能否麻烦你, :!: 把教授的视频发到我的邮箱,我想给我的学生看看,也教育他们啊。谢谢

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